Tuberculous meningitis

CT scan showing tuberculous meningitis 
Other names; TB meningitis, Tubercular meningitis 
Specialty; Neurology 
Symptoms; Fever 
Causes; HIV/AIDS, Alcoholism 
Diagnostic method; Blood culture, CT scan 
Treatment; Antibiotic therapy and corticosteroids 

Tuberculous meningitis is also known as TB meningitis or tubercular meningitis. Tuberculous meningitis is Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection of the meninges—the system of membranes which envelop the central nervous system.
Signs and symptoms
Fever and headache are the cardinal features; confusion is a late feature and coma bears a poor prognosis. Meningism is absent in a fifth of patients with TB meningitis. Patients may also have focal neurological deficits.
Causes
Mycobacterium tuberculosis of the meninges is the cardinal feature and the inflammation is concentrated towards the base of the brain. When the inflammation is in the brain stem subarachnoid area, cranial nerveroots may be affected. The symptoms will mimic those of space-occupying lesions.
Blood-borne spread certainly occurs, presumably by crossing theblood–brain barrier; but a proportion of patients may get TB meningitis from rupture of a cortical focus in the brain; an even smaller proportion get it from rupture of a bony focus in the spine.
Pathophysiology
The pathophysiology of tuberculous meningitis has bacilli root itself to the brain parenchyma, which causes the formation of small subpial focus. Then there is an increase in size of Rich focus until rupture. Tubercles rupture in subarachnoid area causes meningitis.
Diagnosis
Diagnosis of TB meningitis is made by analysing cerebrospinal fluid collected bylumbar puncture. When collecting CSF for suspected TB meningitis, a minimum of 1mlof fluid should be taken (preferably 5 to 10ml). The CSF usually has a high protein, low glucose and a raised number of lymphocytes. Acid-fast bacilli are sometimes seen on a CSF smear, but more commonly, M. tuberculosis is grown in culture. A spiderweb clot in the collected CSF is characteristic of TB meningitis, but is a rare finding. ELISPOT testing is not useful for the diagnosis of acute TB meningitis and is often false negative, but may paradoxically become positive after treatment has started, which helps to confirm the diagnosis.
Nucleic acid amplification tests (NAAT)
This is a group of tests that use polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to detect mycobacterial nucleic acid. These test vary in which nucleic acid sequence they detect and vary in their accuracy. The two most common commercially available tests are the amplified mycobacterium tuberculosis direct test (MTD, Gen-Probe) and Amplicor. In 2007, review concluded that for diagnosing tuberculous meningitis "Individually, the AMTD test appears to perform the best (sensitivity 74% and specificity 98%)", they found the pooled prevalence of TB meningitis to be 29%.
Treatment
The treatment of TB meningitis is isoniazid, rifampicin, pyrazinamide and ethambutol for two months, followed by isoniazid and rifampicin alone for a further ten months. Steroids help reduce the risk of death in those without HIV. Steroids can be used in the first six weeks of treatment, A few people may require immunomodulatory agents such asthalidomide. Hydrocephalus occurs as a complication in about a third of people with TB meningitis. The addition of aspirin may reduce or delay mortality, possibly by reducing complications such as infarcts.